The policy process

In relation to policy formulation in the QA4ODFL course:

  1. Think of any education policy you know of in your context.
  2. Identify the people who were involved in formulating that policy.
  3. What processes were followed in developing that policy?
    Click on Reply below to post your answers in the discussion forum, and engage with what other participants have posted.
1 Like

Name of Policy: Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Policy
People involved in the formulation of the policy: CPD course developer, Senior officers - Education
Policy Formulation Process:

Step 1: Initiation: - CPD issues were identified. Example; (a): CPD schedule (b) No of CPD (c) CPD venues (d). CPD content

Step 2; Reformation of opinion: Issues were analyzed, possible solutions were gathered.

Step 3: Emergence of alternatives - Options/solutions are formally presented. Example - Fixed number of CPDs every year, School-based CPD, CPD task to be classroom-based.

Step 4: Discussion of the proposed opinions. Consent-building between policy makers. Proposed opinions are finalized for legitimation.

Step 5: Drafting of the policy using the formal template. Purpose and aim of the policy established.

Step 6. Implementation of the policy.

Step 7: Monitoring and Evaluation of the Policy

Step 8: Policy Review

1 Like
  1. Title of Policy: Teachers Registration Regulation
    This policy is a property of the Ministry of Education and endorsed in 2020.

  2. Policy Makers: Teacher Registrar Officer, Technical Consultant, Legal Officer of Ministry of Justice, Director of Policy, Planning, Research and Development, Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Education.

  3. Processes of developing the Policy. The Ministry of Education adopted the procedures of developing a Policy prepared by Office of Attorney General.

Step One - Needs Analysis
It developed directly by consulting the legal framework namely the Education Act 2013. The Teachers Registration Regulation developed from the Education Act 2013 - Part VI and this is one of the requirements that the Education Act strongly stressed for the purpose of achieving the Goal of quality education in Kiribati.

Step Two - Drafting
The Registrar Officer and Technical Advisor drafted the Policy in consultation with the Office of Attorney General Office (OAG) for their clearance where OAG see it fit to the legal standards and requirements of drafting process and procedures.

Step Three - Consultation and Approval
When OAG gave a clearance, then the policy was consulted first to cabinet with a cabinet paper also drafted with the Policy to instruct cabinet for endorsement. After the endorsement by cabinet, the Policy was consulted widely in the country.

Step Four - Implementation
The next phase is that the policy was implemented in 2020 with a piloted registration of teachers conducted in one selected school at the Primary, Junior and Secondary on South Tarawa. The piloting was done as one way to identify any issues and make improvements before the registration of teachers implemented widely in Kiribati.

Step Five - Monitoring and Review
This Policy does not indicate if there is a need of monitoring and evaluation.

Name of Policy: Policy of Mobile Phones in school
People involved in the formulation of the policy: Senior Education Officer,School Counselors, Vice Principal,Assistant Teachers,School Chaplain.
Processed followed in developing that policy :The Ministry of Education adopted the procedures of developing a Policy and was approved by the Prime Minister in the Year 2017.
Purpose of this policy is to provide clear transparent framework to students and teachers in all Ministry of Education on the use of electronic device in schools.
Teachers noted on the need for students to bring in mobile to school so it will help them especially the Year 12 and Year 13 during school hours but students has to inform the teacher first

  1. PD-Professional Development for all teachers to improved their performance
  2. principal, vice principal and the senior members in the curriculum division
  3. to enhanced teachers capabilities and provide best strategies to delivered understandable lessons to the students

Quite a robust and well structured system of developing the policy on the registration of teachers was followed. It is also important to have such a policy as teaching is a profession, and generally professional organisations require their members to officially register.
In your view, do you think the policy is clear enough for teachers to understand it and do you think it is necessary to have a monitoring and evaluation component? Give reasons for your responses.

Use of mobile phones by learners at school has been a controversial issue for many years, with divided opinions amongst both teachers and parents. However, the trend seems to be changing in the post covid era, with many schools now allowing learners to bring smart phones to school for use in learning. So, policy on use of such devices (and other technological devices) is very important.

  1. Policy Name: Policy on Early Childhood Education
  2. Those involved: Ministry of Education/UNESCO/Fiji Higher Education Commission
  3. Processes that were followed:
    3.1 Research and development on developing a policy on Early Childhood Education
    3.2 Informal awareness programmes initiated for these categories example setting up children’s park, children’s library, children’s play center, children’s competition etc.
    3.3 High Scope of data gathering, analysis and reporting (Proposed Draft)
    3.4 Establishment of physical assets that meets the criteria and age groups (Consultation)
    3.5 Recognition of activities and implementation of learning phases (Application)
    3.6 Registration of child care centers and enrollment (Implementation)
    3.7 Monitoring of syllabus and Review


    This is a policy that introduced ODFeL to Nigeria Polytechnics… The pandemic that ravaged the world in 2020 birthed a major policy in Nigeria tertiary education. The policy was the agreement between all policy stakeholders to introduced ODFEL as a programme in Nigeria Polytecnics.

2.POLICY MAKERS: The policy maker in this regards were officials of National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), Rectors of Polytechnics and other critical stakeholders.

  1. INITIATION: In 2020, it became apparent and obvious to create a flexible and open learning for polytechnic students. This was due to the devastation covid 19 caused to the educational calendar of that sector.

  2. REFORMATION OF OPINION: The policy was analyzed amongst policy makers and it was considered a great one given its flexible and boundless learning for students.

  3. EMERGENCE OF ALTERNATIVES: Policy options were presented. Several other viable option were tabled for consideration. Owing to the beauty and viability of this, policy, it was amended and adopted

  4. DISCUSSION OF PROPOSED OPINION: Discussion were held between policy makers, stakeholders and others to finalize on the number of institution for pilot scheme.

  5. LEGITIMIZATION: The policy makers adopted some selected polytechnics for pilot scheme. To test the success of the newly formulated policy. The policy has since spread to other polytechnics across the federation.

  6. IMPLEMENTATION: The programmes has since commenced and full implementation has taken place using Yaba College of Technology and Kaduna Polytechnic as a pilot scheme

  7. POLICY REVIEW. It can be said that the policy has been very successful considering its wide acceptance by students and parents at large knowing the seamlessly of studies and the time it avails everyone involved.

1- Academic Staff Workload Policy
2- Senior management team and senate
3- The University developed the policy to help Head of Schools, Deans, and the University ensure that staff are equitably treated in terms of their workload. The Policy also intended to assist academic and resource planning and to allow staff to perform in both research and teaching.

A policy on continuous professional development is very important in an educational institution, well done for identifying the policy.
I see that the policy process was very structured and well in line with what is recommended in the literature and indeed, in this course.
I am interested in knowing how well the policy is being implemented. What are some of the challenges that are being faced in implementing it, if any?

A policy on academic workload is important, especially given that many academics always complain of burnout. I would have liked to know who developed the policy and the policy process that was followed.


Policy: Universal Basic Education
Number of out of school children has been identified as challenging factor; so Federal government decides to introduce free basic education for 9 consecutive years. This leads to modification of 6-3-3-4 national education system in Nigeria to 9-3-4 education policy.
The first nine years is further classified into three categories: the lower basic, middle basic and upper basic. A child would spend three years in each category, after which he/she would sit for exams into upper basic and spend another three years. The last four years is for his university education.
The policy makers are federal and state ministries of education, together with their educational consultants.

I might say in many African countries, primary enrolment rates went up sharply as a result of policies on (Free) Universal Basic Education that were introduced by many governments. That just shows how effective policy can be in shaping the education system of a country.
Alas!! How about having corresponding policies on the quality of education?

the behavioral management policy is one such policy that know of in my context

the people involved in formulating that policy is the school admin together with teachers

a meeting was held and a number of issues were identified and those issues were categorized under different grades. Each grade of issue had its own consequences

School four term policy.
There was shift in the school terms from three term to four terms.
People that were involved in the decision making was the government, ministry of education, principals, teacher’s unions and stakeholders.
The process that was followed were that the consultant were conducted by the ministry of education with the stakeholders there was also a open forum discussions were people voiced out their opinions on the policy. It was approved in 2021 that 2022 will have four terms. The reason for the this policy was that the ministry of education believed that it will decrease study
work load of the students.

Discrimination and Workplace Harassment Prevention
The group of people involved in formulating this policy are the university senate council- HR partner-Student association.
The process of policy formulation at university is passive and it is not for problem solving but with forethoughts to avoid certain situations to arise and how it can be delt with. fewer consultations are done at first with students and staffs, and based on different cultured people attending National University, discrimination and harassment was paramount in this situation. the policy drafters come up with suggestions and with proper consultation it then goes through Students Association, HR partner and senate meeting to make it legislative and finally operationlize as policy.

Policy on External Examination and Assessment

The purpose of this policy is to provide a framework and to maintain a coordinated, consistent conduct of external examinations and assessments. It is developed through a collaborative process involving a range of stakeholders, including government officials, educators, assessment experts, parents, and students. The specific process for developing a policy can vary depending on the context, but typically involves the following steps:

Need identification: The first step is to identify the need for external examination and assessment. This may involve analyzing data on student performance, identifying gaps in the education system, and consulting with stakeholders to identify key challenges and opportunities.

Policy drafting: Once the need has been identified, a working group or committee is often formed to draft the policy. This group may include representatives from different stakeholder groups and may work with external experts or consultants as needed.

Consultation and feedback: Once a draft policy has been developed, it is typically shared for consultation and feedback with stakeholders, including educators, administrators, parents, students, and other interested parties. Feedback is incorporated into the policy as appropriate.

Approval and implementation: Once the policy has been finalized, it is typically approved by a governing body or legislative body. The policy is then implemented, often with support and resources from the government or other organizations.

Policy- National code of conduct
Persons involved- Ministry of education, Government of the country, principals, staff, students, stakeholder in school community, and union representatives
Before policy making takes place, a problem/issue would have arose to cause Government to want to create and implement this policy.

  1. Analysis of existing situation- examples such as use of internet, misconduct in the service, indiscipline with students, truancy issues with students, and the increase use of mobile phones .
    Policy analysis has to verify, define, and detail the problem /issue. Establish evaluation criteria, identify alternatives, assess these options, display and distinguish among the alternatives/options
    Lastly, implement, monitor and evaluate the policy. Consultations would have been done with stakeholders and union representatives to get feedback and use this to guide the process.
  2. Generating policy alternatives
  3. Evaluate policy alternatives/ options
  4. Making the policy decision

(effective in September 2011, review September 2012)

Those involved: stakeholders, including government officials, educators, assessment experts, parents, and students.

• Examinations Act, Cap 2624
• Education Act 1978
• Health & Safety at Work Act 1996
• Health & Safety at Work (Amendment) Act 2003
• Health & Safety at Work (Administration) Regulations 1997
• Health & Safety at Work (Training) Regulations 1997
• Public Service Act, 1999 Part 2, Section 6 (1) – (14) Public Service Code of Conduct Legislative programmes in education and training
• Public Service General Regulations 1999 5.9 Fiji School Leaving Certificate Examination Regulations 1991
• Fiji Seventh Form Certificate Examination Regulations 1991

Relevant Policies

  1. Ministry of Education. (2010). Policy on External Examinations and Assessment
  2. Ministry of Education. (2009). Early Childhood Care, Development and Education Policy
  3. Ministry of Education. (2008). Standards Monitoring in Schools
  4. Ministry of Education. (2008). Policy In Occupational Health and Safety in Schools
  5. Ministry of Education. (2011). Policy In Schools Information Management System (Under Review)
  6. Ministry of Education. General Instructions for Chief Supervisors of Secondary Public Examinations
  7. Ministry of Education. General Instructions for Assistant Supervisors of Secondary Public Examinations
  8. Ministry of Education. (1990). FSLCE Regulations
  9. Ministry of Education. (2007). FSFE Regulations j. Ministry of Education. (2007). The Fiji Islands National Curriculum Framework (NCF)
  10. Ministry of Education. (2009). Na Noda Mataniciva

Identification of the necessity for an external evaluation and assessment is the first step. This may include examining data on student progress, addressing specifics in the education system, and meeting stakeholders to identify major possibilities. After a need has been determined, a working group or committee is established to develop the policy. Representatives from several stakeholder groups may be included in this committee, and when appropriate, it may confer with outside experts or consultants. After a draft policy has been created, it is often shared with those involved. As necessary, feedback is included into the policy. Once the policy has been established, it is normally adopted by a governing body or legislative body. The policy is subsequently put into practice then reviewed later.